How to Use schema.org Enumerations

Enumerations are a feature of schema.org that allow publishers to select a value for a property from a restricted list of values, such as the answer to a question where the only possible responses are "yes", "no" and "maybe".

Enumerations are useful both to publishers and data consumers (like search engines) because they provide unambiguous and consistently-formed information about the thing being described.

While enumerations are an important part of schema.org, the documentation describing them is rather sparse. With this article I hope to provide a bit more information about schema.org enumerations: what they are, where to find them and how to use them.
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Google Assistant Now Natively Supports Podcasts, Recipes and News

I encountered a tweet today from Dan Sure which provided the text of an intriguing notification from Google concerning the use of podcasts, recipes and news by Google Assistant, Google's virtual assistant that's used by Google Home, Android phones and a host of other devices. (And since then numerous other webmasters have also commented on receiving this notification, as reported by Matt Southern in this Search Engine Journal article).
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Meet "Rich Results Test", Google's New Structured Data Tool

December 19, 2017
Meet Rich Results Test, Google's New Structured Data Tool

Google announced today that they have released a new-and-improved version of its Structured Data Testing Tool, available in beta as the Rich Results Test. The name of the tool reflects – as noted in the announcement post – the fact that what Google had previously referred to as "rich snippets, rich cards, or enriched results" […]

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An Open Letter to Bing Regarding JSON-LD

March 24, 2017
An Open Letter to Bing Regarding JSON-LD Support

Hi Bing, how's it going? Pretty well, I think. I was really happy to learn in October 2015 that Bing had started turning a profit. Competition in the search engine arena is vital, as it provides search engines with an incentive to innovate and, more importantly, ensures that search engines will endeavor to win over […]

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Schema.org Gets Hospitable with Release 3.1 for the Hotel Industry

August 8, 2016
Schema.org Gets Hospitable with Release 3.1 for the Hotel Industry

Dan Brickley of Google announced a major new release of schema.org today, bringing with it some fairly groundbreaking updates to the hotel and accommodation vocabulary. Dubbed “makemake,” schema.org version 3.1 integrates the work of Martin Hepp and Hepp Research GmbH with the existing hospitality schemas, constituting the most significant update for the hospitality industry since […]

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Google Now Supports Critic Reviews for Local Businesses

August 5, 2016
Google Now Supports Critic Reviews for Local Businesses

Yesterday Google updated its structured data documentation on reviews to include guidelines and code specifications for the creation of critic reviews for local businesses, along with a number of other, smaller changes. Exactly one year earlier Google announced support for critic reviews in the Knowledge Graph (at launch restricted to reviews of movies), and provided […]

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What's New with Structured Data and Markup?

June 27, 2016
What's New with Structured Data and Markup?

I'm just back from Seattle, where I had the pleasure of speaking at yet another sold out SMX Advanced. The topic of my talk was "What's New with Markup and Structured Data", where I reviewed recent search engine-facing changes relevant to structured data, structured data markup, knowledge bases and other aspects of semantic search. When […]

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Rich Cards and Google's Structured Data Restructuring

May 19, 2016
Rich Cards and Google's Structured Data Restructuring

On 17 May 2016 Google rolled out a number of changes to how the search engine handles structured data on the web. Among the most important of these changes are the introduction of a new rich results type, Rich Cards; the complete restructuring of its documentation about structured data; and the addition of a new […]

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Google Structured Data Testing Tool Updated

May 13, 2016
Google Structured Data Testing Tool Updated

The Google Structured Data Testing Tool has been given a makeover, as noted yesterday by Kenichi Suzuki on Google+. In addition to updating the Testing Tool, Google has also published a help page on Google Developers describing the features of the Testing Tool and how to use it.

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"Top Stories with AMP" Added to Google Structured Data Site

February 24, 2016
Top Stories with AMP Added to Google Structured Data Site

Concurrent with its announcement that Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) articles are now available in the search results, Google has added a new page to the Structured Data section of the Google Developers site: "Top Stories with AMP". This now joins "Live Blogs" in the section titled "Promote Content using Carousels". This comes on the heels […]

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